Background: Different dental features have contributed significantly toward sex determination in the forensic anthropological contexts. Population-specific standards (discriminant functions or regression formulae) have been suggested for various population groups to identify the sex of an unknown individual from dental dimensions and other odontometric features. The main purpose of the present investigation was to examine the degree of sexual dimorphism exhibited by the human teeth of North Indians and identify importance as a forensic tool in sex determination. Materials and Methods: The linear and diagonal dimensions were recorded at both crown and cementoenamel junction levels of 58 upper and 72 lower molars of 130 Northwest Indian subjects (73 males and 57 females). The measurements were subjected to appropriate statistical analyses to estimate the sex estimation accuracy from lower and upper molars separately. Results: Univariate analyses revealed that molar teeth had greater dimensions in males than the females and the mesiodistal cervical diameter (MDCV) was found to be the most suitable variable for sex determination of the molars. The classification results were in agreement with the previously conducted studies. The index of sexual dimorphism (ISD) was calculated to be higher in lower molars than the upper molars, and the highest sex differences were observed for MDCV based on the ISD. The overall sex estimation accuracy obtained from multivariate discriminant function analysis and regression analysis of pooled data was 70.0% (74% males, 64.9% females) and 66.9% (78.1% males, 52.6% females), respectively. Conclusions: Odontometrics can play a significant role in establishing the biological identity of an unknown individual even from a single tooth in the absence of other sophisticated molecular or biochemical techniques used for this purpose.
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