Significance of mandibular canine index in sexual dimorphism and aid in personal identification in forensic odontology
Background: Forensic odontology is basically the science dealing with establishing identity by teeth and has played an important, often crucial, role in the identification of victims of mass disasters. Among all teeth, the mandibular canines are found to exhibit greatest sexual dimorphism. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of mandibular canine index (MCI) in the determination of sex. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 62 subjects (31 males, 31 females). Mesiodistal diameter of mandibular canines was measured with the help of digital Vernier calipers. Intercanine distance was measured with the help of a divider. The standard MCI value is used as a cut off point to differentiate males from females. Statistical analysis was done using t-test. Results: The width of mandibular canine was higher in males than in females, which was statistically significant. The left canine is found to exhibit greater sexual dimorphism, i.e., 7.62% as compared with right canine, i.e., 6.85%. The calculated standard MCI for both male and female was 0.247. With these calculations, the overall percentage of sex determination was 79.03%. Conclusion: The ability to determine gender using Standard MCI was estimated to be 73.33% in males and 80% in females. It was concluded that with standard MCI, it was possible to detect sex for forensic purposes.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Neha Gandhi, Sandeep Jain, Harkiranjot Kahlon, Arshdeep Singh, Ramandeep Gambhir, & Akanksha Gaur. (2017). Significance of mandibular canine index in sexual dimorphism and aid in personal identification in forensic odontology. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 9(2), 56–60. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfo.jfds_15_16
- William PL, Bannister LH, Dyson M, Berry MM, Collins P, Dussek JE, et al. Gray’s Anatomy; the teeth. 38th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1995.
- Muller M, Lupi-Pegurier L, Quatrehomme G, Bolla M. Odontometrical method useful in determining gender and dental alignment. Forensic Sci Int 2001;121:194-7.
- Rai B, Anand SC, Bhardwaj DN, Dhattarwal SK. Gender determination from odontometry. Int J Dent Anthropol 2006;9:8‑12.
- Nagle RJ, Sears VH. Anterior tooth arrangement in complete dentures. 1st ed. St. Louis: The CV Mosby Company; 1958. p. 353.
- Kaushal S, Patnaik VV, Agnihotri G. Mandibular canines in sex determination. J Anat Soc India 2003;52:119-24.
- Dayal PK, Srinivasan SV, Paravatty RP. Determination of sex using tooth. In: Textbook of Forensic Odontology. 1st ed. Hyderabad: Paras Medical Publisher; 1998. p. 40.
- Black GV. Description of human teeth. 4th ed. Philadelphia S. S. White Mfg. Co.; 1902.
- Parekh D, Zalawadia A, Ruparelia S, Patel S, Rathod SP, Patel SV. Study of mandibular canine teeth dimorphism in establishing sex identity in Gujarat region. NJIRM 2011;2:6‑9.
- Yuwanati M, KariaA, Yuwanati M. Canine tooth dimorphism: An adjunct for establishing sex identity. J Forensic Dent Sci 2012;4:80-3.
- Khangura RK, Sircar K, Singh S, Rastogi V. Sex determination using mesiodistal dimension of permanent maxillary incisors and canines. J Forensic Dent Sci 2011;3:81-5.
- Vishwakarma N, Guha R. A study of sexual dimorphism in permanent mandibular canines and its implications in forensic investigations. Nepal Med Coll J 2011;13:96‑9.
- Garn SM, Lewis AB, Kerewsky RS. Buccolingual size asymmetry and its developmental meaning. Angle Orthod 1967;37:186‑93.
- Rao NG, Rao NN, Pai ML, Kotian MS. Mandibular canine index –A clue for establishing sex identity. Forensic Sci Int 1989;42:249-54.
- Danielson K. Guest editorial. Int J Forensic Dent 1978;1:1-2.
- Kapila R, Nagesh KS, R IyengarA, Mehkri S. Sexual dimorphism in human mandibular canines: A radiomorphometric study in South Indian population. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2011;5:51-4.
- Reddy VM, Saxena S, Bansal P. Mandibular canine index as a sex determinant: A study on the population of Western Uttar Pradesh. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2008;12:56‑9.
- Galdames IS, López MC, Farías BL, Marchant CS, Muñoz ST, Rojas PG, et al. Sexual dimorphism in mesiodistal and bucolingual tooth dimensions in Chilean people. Int J Morphol 2008;26:609‑14.
- Nair P, Rao BB, Annigeri RG. A study of tooth size, symmetry and sexual dimorphism. J Forensic Med Toxicol 1999;16:10‑3.
- Garn SM, Lewis AB, Swindler DR, Kerewsky RS. Genetic control of sexual dimorphism in tooth size. J Dent Res 1967;46:963‑72.
- Cassidy KM, Harris EF, Tolley EA, Keim RG. Genetic influence on dental arch form in orthodontic patients. Angle Orthod 1998;68:445‑54