Cheiloscopic patterns in Indian population and their efficacy in sex determination: A randomized cross-sectional study


Rachna Kaul
Shreenivasa Padmashree
Padar Shilpa
Nishat Sultana
Suraksha Bhat


Background: Cheiloscopy or the study of lip prints is an important tool in forensic dentistry which is gaining popularity in current times. Not only has it proven effective in identification of individuals, but its role in sex determination has also been investigated. There are six different types of cheiloscopic/lip print patterns according to Tsuchihashi. Aims: The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of cheiloscopic/lip print pattern in 755 individuals and also to assess their efficacy in sex determination. Materials and Methods: According to classification by Tsuchihashi, the lip prints were analysed. Sex determination using lip print was done by method given by Vahanwala et al. Results: It was found that Type I was the most prevalent cheiloscopic pattern. Based on the method of sex determination using lip prints by Vahanwala et al., the percentage of individuals correctly identified was less. Conclusion: Although cheiloscopy holds promise as a supplementary tool along with other modes to recognize the sex of an individual, there is need for further studies using standardized methods to evaluate the same in larger population sizes.


How to Cite
Rachna Kaul, Shreenivasa Padmashree, Padar Shilpa, Nishat Sultana, & Suraksha Bhat. (2015). Cheiloscopic patterns in Indian population and their efficacy in sex determination: A randomized cross-sectional study. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 7(2), 101–106.


  1. Nagasupriya A, Dhanapal R, Reena K, Saraswathi T, Ramachandran C. Patterns‑“A crime solver”. J Forensic Dent Sci 2011;3:3-7.
  2. Venkatesh R, David MP. Cheiloscopy: An aid for personal identification. J Forensic Dent Sci 2011;3:67‑70.
  3. Suzuki K, Tsuchihashi Y. New attempt of personal identification by means of lip print. J Indian Dent Assoc 1970;42:8-9.
  4. Sivapathasundharam B, Prakash PA, Sivakumar G. Lip prints (cheiloscopy). Indian Dent Res 2001;12:234-7.
  5. Tsuchihashi Y. Studies on personal identification by means of lip prints. Forensic Sci 1974;3:233-48.
  6. Acharya B, Sivapathasundharam B. Forensic odontology. In: Rajendran R, Sivapathasundharam B, editors. Shafer’s Textbook of Oral Pathology. 5th ed. New Delhi: Elsevier; 2006. p. 1224.
  7. Caldas IM, Magalhães T, Afonso A. Establishing identity using cheiloscopy and palatoscopy. Forensic Sci Int 2007;165:1-9.
  8. Kasprzak J. Cheiloscpy. In: Siegel JA, Saukko PJ, Knupfer GC, editors. Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press; 2000. p. 358-61.
  9. Ball J. The current status of lip prints and their use for identification. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2002;20:43-6.
  10. Snyder LM. Textbook of Homicide Investigation: Identification of Dead Bodies. 1950.
  11. Vahanwala SP, Parekh BK. Study of lip prints as an aid to forensic methodology. J Forensic Med Toxicol 2000;17:12-8.
  12. Vahanwala S, Nayak CD, Pagare SS. Study of lip prints for sex identification. Medico-legal Update. 2005-07-2005-09; Vol. 5. Available from: php?journalid=9 and issueid=69 and articleid=878 and action=article. [Last accessed on 2013 Jul 29].
  13. Rothwell BR. Principles of dental identification. Dent Clin North Am 2001;45:253-70.
  14. Acharya AB. Teaching forensic odontology: An opinion on its content and format. Eur J Dent Educ 2006;10:137-41.
  15. Castelló A, Alvarez-Seguí M, Verdú F. Luminous lip-prints as criminal evidence. Forensic Sci Int 2005;155:185-7.
  16. Alvarez Segui M, Miquel Feucht M, Castello Ponce A, Verdu Pascual F. Persistent lipsticks and their lip prints: New hidden evidence at the crime scene. Forensic Sci Int 2000;112:41-7.
  17. Gondvikar SM, Indurkar A, Degwekar S, Bhowate R. Cheiloscopy for sex determination. J Forensic Dent Sci 2009;1:56-60.
  18. Vahanwala S, Nayak CD, Pagare SS. Study of lip prints as an aid for sex determination. Med Leg Update 2005;5:93-8.
  19. Saraswathi TR, Gauri M, Ranganathan K. Study of lip prints. J Forensic Dent Sci 2009;1:28-31.
  20. Randhawa K, Narang RS, Arora PC. Study of the effect of age changes on lip print pattern and its reliability in sex determination. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2011;29:45-51.
  21. Sandhu SV, Bansal H, Monga P, Bhandari R. Study of lip print pattern in a Punjabi population. J Forensic Dent Sci 2012;4:24‑8.
  22. Castelló A, Alvarez‑Segui M, Verdú F. Use of fluorescent dyes for developing latent lip prints. Color Technol 2004;120:184-7.
  23. Genecov JS, Sinclair PM, Dechow PC. Development of the nose and soft tissue profile. Angle Orthod 1990;60:191‑8.
  24. Gordon RW. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success. Dent Today 2010;29:128-31.
  25. Gordon RW. Vermillion Dollar lips: Lip and Perioral Augmentation for the Cosmetic Dentist. Tampa, Florida: Vermillion Dollar Publications; 2008.