Bitemark analysis: Use of polyether in evidence collection, conservation, and comparison


  • Gabriel Fonseca Department of Oral Pathology and Forensic Dentistry Team, Cordoba
  • Martin Farah Department of Dental Materials and Forensic Dentistry Team, School of Dentistry, National University of Cordoba, Cordoba
  • Sabrina Orellano-Blaskovich Department of Oral Pathology and Forensic Dentistry Team, Cordoba



Bitemarks, crime identification, forensic odontology, polyether casts, stone casts, physical comparison, skin distortion


Background: While bitemarks are categorical identification evidence, the dynamics of biting, the anatomical location of the bite, and failures in wound records can introduce distorted images and mislead crime investigation. Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 bitemarks were performed on dead pig skin and subsequently photographed, excised, conserved, and analyzed using digital comparison (Adobe Photoshop™ 8.0), following the standard procedures (ABFO); physical comparison was also done using polyether (Impregum™; 3M) casts. Study plaster casts of the upper and lower jaws of each subject were taken using type IV yellow densite stone. Polyether was used as impression material to obtain bitemarks, and casts were made from densite stone and polyether. Results: Because of its elasticity, polyether casts can compensate for primary or secondary distortions, so that there is a better degree of match when positioning the subject′s dental cast. Conclusion: Polyether is an alternative impression material and is an excellent option for creating positive casts of the wound for physical dynamic comparison.


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How to Cite

Gabriel Fonseca, Martin Farah, & Sabrina Orellano-Blaskovich. (2009). Bitemark analysis: Use of polyether in evidence collection, conservation, and comparison. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 1(2), 66–72.