Sex determination in forensic identification, a review


  • Sagar P. Nagare Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Yogita Dental College, Khed, Maharashtra
  • Rajendra S. Birangane Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Dental College, Solapur, Maharashtra
  • Pratik C. Parkarwar Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Dental College, Solapur, Maharashtra
  • Rohan Shrinivas Chaudhari Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Dental College, Solapur, Maharashtra



Amelogenin, canine dimorphism, cheiloscopy, forensic odontology, polymerase chain reaction, rugoscopy, sex determination


Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. It is an investigative aspect of dentistry that analyzes dental evidence for human identification. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology, and it is important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters, crime investigations, and ethnic studies. Determination of sex/gender using skeletal remains presents a great problem to forensic experts, especially when only fragments of body are recovered. Forensic odontologist can assist other experts to determine the sex of the remains using teeth and skull traits. Various features of teeth such as morphology, crown size, and root length are characteristics for male and female sexes. There are also differences in the skull pattern and skull traits of two sexes. These will help forensic odontologists to identify the sex of the remains. The library dissertation contents and several articles and books were electronically searched in Google using the keywords “sex determination,” “forensic dentistry,” “sex determination in forensic dentistry.” The contents were screened between 1950 and 2015 by going through the title and abstracts and full-text reading. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the different methods of sex determination.


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How to Cite

Sagar P. Nagare, Rajendra S. Birangane, Pratik C. Parkarwar, & Rohan Shrinivas Chaudhari. (2018). Sex determination in forensic identification, a review. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 10(2), 61–66.



Review Article