Context: In exhibiting gender dimorphism, the bony pelvis and skull give the most reliable results from morphometric analysis. Palatal dimensions were reported to exhibit racial difference and sexual dimorphism in several studies. Aim: The aim of the present study was to measure the maxillary arch depth and palatal depth in Indian population to assess their use as a tool for sexual dimorphism. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty males and 250 females in the age group of 17–25 years were enrolled in the study, and impressions of maxillary arch were made. Measurement of palatal depth and maxillary arch depth was carried out at specific reference points using Korkhaus compass and digital caliper, respectively. The comparison of maxillary arch depth and palatal depth values was done using independent t-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Diagnostic performance of significantly different variable was quantified by plotting “receiver operating characteristic” (ROC) curve. Results: Arch depth mean values were significantly higher in males than females. However, palatal depth mean values, though higher in males, were not significant. Area under the curve in ROC curve for maxillary arch depth was found to be 0.76, indicating sufficiency of discriminatory power of this variable. Conclusion: The present study showed that maxillary arch depth can be used as a tool for sex determination along with other morphometric methods. Mean value of both maxillary arch depth and palatal depth can be used as the baseline value for given population to be used as a reference for further studies.
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