Volumetric Analysis of Teeth using Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Age Estimation among the Indian Residents: A Pilot Study


Rasika Pawar
Sangeeta Palaskar
Swati Patil
Pargatsingh Kathuriya
Saurabhachandra B. Pawar
Rucha Gore


Background: In forensic odontology, dental age estimation is important. Deposition of secondary dentin is a more significant method in dental age predicton. This secondary dentin decreases the size of the pulp cavity. Thus, pulp size is reduced with advancing age. Therefore, the tooth to pulp size area ratio goes on increasing as age increases. Aim: To assess the ratio of “pulp/tooth volume” in single and multi- rooted teeth by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and correlate with the age. Objective: 1. To analyse ratio of pulp/ tooth volume in single and multi-rooted teeth, 2. To evaluate accuracy of the Yang’s formula available for age estimation, 3. To generate the formula for multi rooted teeth and correlate with the age. Methodology: 150 extracted teeth of which 50 permanent maxillary canines, 50 maxillary first premolars and 50 permanent maxillary first molars were collected and subjected to CBCT scanning for volumetric analysis. ‘Pulp Volume (PV)’, ‘Tooth Volume (TV)’ and ‘Pulp/Tooth Volume Ratio (PTVR)’ were calculated. Result: Linear regression analyses established that the chronological age and PTVR correlated with each other. Pearson correlation coefficient showed TV, PV and PTVR were inversely proportional to age. Conclusion: This study revealed that permanent maxillary canine has the best correlation with age followed by First molar and First premolar.


How to Cite
Pawar, R. ., Palaskar, . S. ., Patil, . S. ., Kathuriya, P. ., Pawar, S. B. ., & Gore, R. . (2022). Volumetric Analysis of Teeth using Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Age Estimation among the Indian Residents: A Pilot Study. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 12(2), 89–96. https://doi.org/10.18311/jfds/12/2/2020.611


  1. Gnanasundaram N. Guest editorial tooth for truth (The glory of forensic dentistry). J Forensic Dent Sci. 2010; 2(2):51-52. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-1475.81277. PM id: 21731339 PMCid:PMC3125951. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-1475.81277
  2. Kavitha B, Einstein A, Sivapathasundharam B, Saraswathi TR. Limitations in forensic odontology. J Forensic Dent Sci. 2009; 1(1):8-10. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2948.50881. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2948.50881
  3. Rajendra R, Shivpathsundaram B. Shafer’s Textbook of Oral Pathology 7th Ed. Elesvier Publications; 2011. p. 889.
  4. Balagopal S. Forensic odontology in India. J Forensic Dent Sci. 2009; 1(1):1. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2948.50879. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2948.50879
  5. Acharya AB. An intersection of oral pathology and forensic odontology. Int J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2011; 2(1):3.
  6. Singh K, Anandani C, Bhullar RK, Agrawal A, Chaudhary H. Teeth and their secrets - Forensic dentistry. J Forensic Res. 2012; 3:141. https://doi.org/10.4172/21577145.1000141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000141
  7. Cameriere R et al. Age estimation by pulp/tooth ratio in lower premolars by orthopantomography. Forensic Sci Int. 2012; 214(1-3):105-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.07.028. PMid:21821373. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.07.028
  8. Talreja PK, Acharya AB, Naikmasur VG. An assessment of the versatility of Kvaal’s method of adult dental age estimation in Indians. Arch Oral Biol. 2012; 57(3):277-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.08.020. PMid: 21930260. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.08.020
  9. Someda H, Saka H, Matsunaga S, Ide Y, Nakahara K. Age estimation based on three-dimensional measurement of mandibular central incisors in Japanese. Forensic Sci Int. 2009; 185(1-3):110-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.01.001. PMid:19201557. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.01.001
  10. Stein TJ, Corcoran JF, Arbor A, Mich. Pararadicular cementum deposition as a criterion for age estimation in human beings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1994; 77(3):266-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/00304220(94)90297-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-4220(94)90297-6
  11. Nanci A. Ten Cate’s. Oral Histology: Development, Structure, and Function Mosby; 2005. p. 404- 06.
  12. Stavrianos D, Mastaga I, Starianou, Karaiskou. Dental age estimation of adults: A review of methods and principals? Res J Med Sci. 2008; 2(5):258-68.
  13. Gustafson G, Age Determinations on Teeth. J Amer Dent Ass. 1950; 41(1):45-54. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1950.0132. PMid:15428197. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1950.0132
  14. Hazha Star et al. Human Dental Age Estimation by calculation of pulp-tooth volume ratios yielded on clinically acquired cone beam computed tomography images of monoradicular teeth. J Forensic Sci. 2011; 56(S1):S77-81. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2010.01633.x. PMid: 21182523. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2010.01633.x
  15. Sakuma A et al. Age Estimation based on pulp cavity to tooth volume ratio using postmortem computed tomography images. J Forensic Sci. 2013; 58(6):1531-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.12175. PMid:23879293. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.12175
  16. Vandevoort FM. et al. Age calculation using X- ray microfocus computed tomographical scanning of teeth: A pilot study. J Forensic Sci. 2004; 49(4):1-4. https://doi.org/10.1520/JFS2004069. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1520/JFS2004069
  17. Kristin MK, Solhim T, Sigrid I. Kvaal methods of measuring morphological parameters in dental radiographs Comparison between image analysis and manual measurements. Forensic Sci Int. 1998; 94:87-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0379-0738(98)00058-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0379-0738(98)00058-9
  18. Sharma R, Srivastava A. Radiographic evaluation of dental age of adults using Kvaal’s method. J Forensic Dent Sci. 2010; 2(1):22-26. https://doi.org/10.4103/09742948.71053. PMid:21189986 PMCid:PMC3009551. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2948.71053
  19. Bosmans N, Annb P, Alya M, Willems G, The application of Kvaal’s dental age calculation technique on panoramic dental radiographs. Forensic Sci Int. 2005; 153(2-3):20812. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.08.017. PMid: 16139112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.08.017
  20. Singaraju S, Sharada P, Age estimation using pulp/tooth area ratio: A digital image analysis J Forensic Dent Sci. 2009; 1(1):37-41. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2948.50888. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2948.50888
  21. Babshet M, Acharya AB, Naikmasur VG, Age estimation from Pulp/Tooth area Ratio (PTR) in an Indian sample: A preliminary comparison of three mandibular teeth used alone and in combination. J. Forensic Leg. Med. 2011; 18(8):350-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2011.07.003. PMid:22018166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2011.07.003
  22. Juneja M, Devi YB, Rakesh N, Juneja S. Age estimation using pulp/tooth area ratio in maxillary canines-A digital image analysis. J Forensic Dent Sci. 2014; 6(3):160-65.
  23. Cameriere R, Ferrante L, Belcastro GM, Bonfiglioli B, Rastelli E, Cingolani M. Age Estimation by Pulp/Tooth Ratio in Canines by Peri-Apical x-rays. J Forensic Sci. 2007; 52(1):121-26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00336.x. PMid:17209930. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00336.x
  24. Kvaal SI, Kolltveit KM, Thomsen IO, Solheim T. Age estimation of adults from dental radiographs. Forensic Sci Int. 1995; 74(3):175-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/0379-0738(95)01760-G. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0379-0738(95)01760-G
  25. Babshet M, Acharya AB, Naikmasur VG. Age estimation in Indians from pulp/tooth area ratio of mandibular canines. Forensic Sci Int. 2010; 125:e1-e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.12.065. PMid:20106616. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.12.065
  26. Saxena S. Age estimation of Indian adults from Orthopantomographs. Braz Oral Res. 2011; 25(3):22529. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-83242011005000009. PMid: 21503416. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-83242011005000009
  27. Mathew DG et al. Adult forensic age estimation using mandibular first molar radiographs: A novel technique. J Forensic Dent Sci. 2013; 5(1):56-59. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-1475.114552. PMid:23960417 PMCid: PMC3746475. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-1475.114552
  28. Ubelaker DH, Parra RC. Application of three dental methods of adult age estimation from intact single rooted teeth to a Peruvian sample. J Forensic Sci. 2008; 53(3):60811. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2008.00699.x. PM id:18471205. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2008.00699.x
  29. Jagannathan N et al. Age estimation in an Indian population using Pulp/tooth volume ratio of mandibular canines obtained from cone beam computed tomography. J Forensic Odontostomatol. 2011; 29 (1):1-6.
  30. Yang F, Jacobs R, Willems G. Dental age estimation through volume matching of teeth imaged by cone-beam CT. Forensic Sci Int. 2006; 159(S1):S78-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.02.031. PMid:16563678. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.02.031

Most read articles by the same author(s)