Mandibular Ramus: An Indicator of Gender and Chronological Age - A Digital Radiographic Study


D. B. Meleveetil
V. T. Beena
Latha Mary Cheriyan
Kavitha Angamuthu
Bibina Charapparambath


Background: The determination of sex and age of individual is important in forensic practice and medico legal purposes. Mandible may play a vital role in sex estimation as it is the most dimorphic bone of skull that often is recovered intact. The present study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of mandibular measurements in gender determination and age estimation as seen on digital panoramic radiographs. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare seven parameters of the mandibular ramus obtained from digital orthopantomographs, and to assess the usefulness of these parameters as aids in gender and age estimation. The objectives were: 1. To assess:-Maximum ramus breadth in mm, Minimum ramus width in mm, Projective height of ramus in mm, Maximum height of the ramus in mm, Maximum coronoid height in mm, Gonial width in mm and Bigonial angle in degrees, 2. To correlate each of these seven variables with the age of the patient, and 3. To compare these seven parameters between males and females. Materials and Methods: OPGs of 500 patients satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria selected from the Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Govt. Dental College, Kottayam, were being studied. Permission from the concerned departments was taken. The measurements were made on this radiograph using GIMP 2.8 Software. Results: All the parameters were found to show statistically significant difference between males and females. After performing logistic regression, an equation was formulated to determine gender from the parameters that were statistically significant in regression analysis. The cut off was set at 0.5. Values above the cut off value were interpreted as males and values below the cut off were interpreted as females. The overall accuracy of sex determination at this cut off value from this method was 73.9%. Significant correlation was not noted between the mandibular parameters and age of the individual. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the mandibular ramus can be considered as a valuable tool in gender estimation since it possesses resistance to damage and disintegration processes. Nevertheless, the age of the individual cannot be determined using this method.


Author Biography

Kavitha Angamuthu, Former Junior Resident, Government Dental College,  Kottayam − 686008, Kerala



How to Cite
Meleveetil, D. B. ., Beena, V. T. ., Cheriyan, L. M. ., Angamuthu, K., & Charapparambath, B. (2022). Mandibular Ramus: An Indicator of Gender and Chronological Age - A Digital Radiographic Study. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 12(3), 158–164.


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