A Comparative Analysis of Palatal Ruga Patterns among Gorkha and North-East Indian Population


  • Amolika Choube Consultant, Department of Oral Pathology, Microbiology and Forensic Odontology, Bikaner, Rajasthan
  • Anup Gopi Consultant, Department of Prosthodontics, Crown and Bridge, Shillong, Meghalaya
  • Madhusudan Astekar Professor and HOD, Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly, UP
  • Anukool Choube Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Triveni Institute of Dental Sciences, Hospital and Research Centre, Bilaspur, Chattishgarh




Forensic Odontology, Human Identification, Palatoscopy, Population Differentiation, Rugoscopy


Background: Palatal rugae are resistant to changes due to trauma or aging. Ruga patterns, being unique to each individual, are valuable for personal identification. The study aims to assess the applicability of palatoscopy for differentiation amongst North-east Indians and Gorkhas in India. Materials and Methods: Sample comprised a total of 100 subjects divided into two groups of 50 each for Gorkha (Group I) and North-east Indian (Group II) population. Alginate impressions were made and models were obtained. Data was recorded after tracing palatal rugae on models. Analysis of rugae for number, side- wise distribution, shape, length, and direction was undertaken. Statistical analysis was carried out and probability value was obtained. Results: After analyzing the rugae patterns in both the groups, total number of rugae was more in Group I as compared to Group II. Total number of rugae on right and left sides each was more in Group I than in Group II. The curved pattern was found to be predominant in both groups. Divergent rugae were predominant in both groups. Maximum rugae were primary and were forwardly directed. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between groups for parameters assessed. Conclusion: Palatoscopy independently was not able to differentiate between individuals of the two test populations. Palatoscopy may assist in the identification process in conjunction with cheiloscopy and intraoral photography. Palatoscopy, on the account of its stability and easy reproducibility, should be encouraged among dentists for maintenance of patient records for forensic identification.


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How to Cite

Choube, A., Gopi, A., Astekar, M., & Choube, A. (2021). A Comparative Analysis of Palatal Ruga Patterns among Gorkha and North-East Indian Population. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 13(1), 03–09. https://doi.org/10.18311/jfds/13/1/2021.563



Original Research