Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   2014| September-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 18, 2014

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Transposition of teeth: A forensic perspective
Supriya Nambiar, Subraya Mogra, Surendra Shetty
September-December 2014, 6(3):151-153
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137041  PMID:25177135
Dental identification plays a key role in mass casualties and is usually based on disturbances of tooth eruption, malocclusions and/or previous dental treatments, changes brought about by age, pathological conditions and developmental disturbances. Tooth transposition is a disturbance of tooth eruption and is defined as change in the position of two adjacent teeth within the same quadrant. This review aims to discuss the prevalence and the etiology of transposition through a literature survey and to discuss its importance and implications as pertaining to the field of forensics. In summary, transposition is a rare and severe positional anomaly that represents a challenge for a dentist. It requires a keen eye on the part of the forensic pathologist to identify the condition.
  3,315 488 -
Role of prosthodontist in forensic odontology. A literature review
Sunil Kumar Mishra, Harsh Mahajan, Rupal Sakorikar, Anoop Jain
September-December 2014, 6(3):154-159
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137045  PMID:25177136
Dental identification assumes a primary role in the identification of remains when postmortem changes, traumatic tissue injury, or lack of a fingerprint record invalidate the use of visual or fingerprint methods. The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Forensic identification based on assessment of prosthodontic appliances is assuming greater significance, as labeling of dentures and other prosthetic appliance could provide vital clues for patient identification. Various recommendations have been made concerning the importance of denture identification. This paper presents a review of available literature highlighting the fact that how a prosthodontist can play a key role in identification of a deceased individual if trained to do so.
  3,233 532 -
Radiomorphometric analysis of frontal sinus for sex determination
Saumya Verma, VG Mahima, Karthikeya Patil
September-December 2014, 6(3):177-182
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137052  PMID:25177140
Context: Sex determination of unknown individuals carries crucial significance in forensic research, in cases where fragments of skull persist with no likelihood of identification based on dental arch. In these instances sex determination becomes important to rule out certain number of possibilities instantly and helps in establishing a biological profile of human remains. Aims: The aim of the study is to evaluate a mathematical method based on logistic regression analysis capable of ascertaining the sex of individuals in the South Indian population. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Methods and Material: The right and left areas, maximum height, width of frontal sinus were determined in 100 Caldwell views of 50 women and 50 men aged 20 years and above, with the help of Vernier callipers and a square grid with 1 square measuring 1mm 2 in area. Statistical analysis used: Student's t-test, logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean values of variables were greater in men, based on Student's t-test at 5% level of significance. The mathematical model based on logistic regression analysis gave percentage agreement of total area to correctly predict the female gender as 55.2%, of right area as 60.9% and of left area as 55.2%. Conclusion: The areas of the frontal sinus and the logistic regression proved to be unreliable in sex determination. (Logit = 0.924 - 0.00217 × right area).
  3,161 447 -
A note on digital dental radiography in forensic odontology
Sher-Lin Chiam
September-December 2014, 6(3):197-201
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137072  PMID:25177144
Digital dental radiography, intraoral and extraoral, is becoming more popular in dental practice. It offers convenience, such as lower exposure to radiation, ease of storing of images, and elimination of chemical processing. However, it also has disadvantages and drawbacks. One of these is the potential for confusion of the orientation of the image. This paper outlines one example of this, namely, the lateral inversion of the image. This source of confusion is partly inherent in the older model of phosphor storage plates (PSPs), as they allow both sides to be exposed without clue to the fact that the image is acquired on the wrong side. The native software allows digital manipulation of the X-ray image, permitting both rotation and inversion. Attempts to orientate the X-ray according to the indicator incorporated on the plate can then sometimes lead to inadvertent lateral inversion of the image. This article discusses the implications of such mistakes in dental digital radiography to forensic odontology and general dental practice.
  2,892 497 -
Estimation of age by Kvaal's technique in sample Indian population to establish the need for local Indian-based formulae
Shruthi K Patil, KP Mohankumar, Mandana Donoghue
September-December 2014, 6(3):166-170
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137050  PMID:25177138
Context: Age estimation using radiographs by Kvaal and coauthors has shown to be reliable method, possible variation in ethnicity restricts its use in sample Indian population. Aims: Thus this study was aimed at evaluating the accuracy of age estimation formula of Kvaal and coauthors developed for Norwegian population. Materials and Methods: From the subjects (1-100) between the age group 20 and 50 years digitized intraoral periapical (IOPA) radiograph of maxillary central incisors was taken and length and width of the teeth were measured and their ratios were calculated and applied to Kvaal and coauthors formula. The estimated age and chronological age were compared, less accurate results were found in sample Indian population. Modified Kvaal's formula was then developed by using regression analysis of the ratios and to evaluate the accuracy of this formula, the study was repeated using same criteria and methodology on another subjects (101-200). Results: Using Kvaal's formula standard error of estimated age was more in sample Indian population when compared with Norwegian population. Then modified Kvaal's formula was developed and applied to sample Indian population, which showed accurate results. Conclusion: This study concludes that formula which was derived from Norwegian population is not applicable to sample Indian population.
  2,763 551 -
Age estimation using pulp/tooth area ratio in maxillary canines-A digital image analysis
Manjushree Juneja, Yashoda B. K. Devi, N Rakesh, Saurabh Juneja
September-December 2014, 6(3):160-165
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137047  PMID:25177137
Introduction: Determination of age of a subject is one of the most important aspects of medico-legal cases and anthropological research. Radiographs can be used to indirectly measure the rate of secondary dentine deposition which is depicted by reduction in the pulp area. Materials and Methods: In this study, 200 patients of Karnataka aged between 18-72 years were selected for the study. Panoramic radiographs were made and indirectly digitized. Radiographic images of maxillary canines (RIC) were processed using a computer-aided drafting program (ImageJ). The variables pulp/root length (p), pulp/tooth length (r), pulp/root width at enamel-cementum junction (ECJ) level (a), pulp/root width at mid-root level (c), pulp/root width at midpoint level between ECJ level and mid-root level (b) and pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) were recorded. All the morphological variables including gender were statistically analyzed to derive regression equation for estimation of age. Results: It was observed that 2 variables 'AR' and 'b' contributed significantly to the fit and were included in the regression model, yielding the formula: Age = 87.305−480.455(AR)+48.108(b). Statistical analysis indicated that the regression equation with selected variables explained 96% of total variance with the median of the residuals of 0.1614 years and standard error of estimate of 3.0186 years. Conclusion: There is significant correlation between age and morphological variables 'AR' and 'b' and the derived population specific regression equation can be potentially used for estimation of chronological age of individuals of Karnataka origin.
  2,521 602 -
Is the research of lip prints and palatal rugae undertaken in India a misdirected endeavor? An opinion based on trends in publication in this journal and international journals
Ashith B Acharya
September-December 2014, 6(3):149-150
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137039  PMID:25177134
  2,428 510 -
Digital radiographic evaluation of mandibular third molar for age estimation in young adults and adolescents of South Indian population using modified Demirjian's method
Rezwana Begum Mohammed, Ravichandra Koganti, Siva V Kalyan, Saritha Tircouveluri, Johar Rajvinder Singh, Enganti Srinivasulu
September-December 2014, 6(3):191-196
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137068  PMID:25177143
In recent years, it has become increasingly important to determine the age of living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility and for many other social events such as birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army and retirement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of mandibular third molar for estimation of dental age (DA) in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA) in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Digital orthopantomography of 330 subjects (165 males, 165 females) who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular third molar development was performed using Demirjian et al., modified method and DA was assessed using tooth specific stages. Results and Discussion: The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males and females. Third molar development commenced around 9 years and root completion takes place around 18.9 years in males and in females 9 years and 18.6 years respectively. Demirjian modified method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.8 years and females by 0.5 years and also showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. Conclusion: Digital radiographic assessment of mandibular third molar development can be used to generate mean DA using Demirjian modified method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA. Since the Demirjian method is based on French-Canadian population, to enhance the accuracy of forensic age estimates based on third molar development, the use of population-specific standards is recommended.
  2,354 385 -
Significance of restorations in forensic identification
Tamilarasi Selvarason
September-December 2014, 6(3):207-209
  2,362 307 -
Role of bite mark characteristics and localizations in finding an assailant
Huseyin Afsin, Beytullah Karadayi, Sadi A Cagdir, Abdi Ozaslan
September-December 2014, 6(3):202-206
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137078  PMID:25177145
The location, size, and number of bite marks can be used as a beneficial indicator of the crime type and feasible group of suspects. This study aims to present information about the bite mark locations, the bite mark characteristics, and the perpetrator's profile based on three cases which were carried out by the same biter. The attack bites, which observed in all of the three cases, were characterized by serious wounds and tissue loss. Analysis of bite mark characteristics and bite mark localizations of these three cases by the relevant experts provided helpful information for the police units which searched for the assailant. But, in order to conduct criminal profiling from bite marks objectively, the number of case series is advised to be expanded.
  2,228 323 -
Scorching effects of heat on extracted teeth - A forensic view
Ajay P Prakash, Shyam D. P. Reddy, Madhusudan T Rao, OV Ramanand
September-December 2014, 6(3):186-190
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137059  PMID:25177142
Context: Fire investigation is the multidisciplinary basis of the exploration, which involves investigations concerning the origin of fire, its cause as well as the identification of victims. At times, victim identification in fire disasters becomes nearly impossible owing to complete destruction of soft tissues. In such circumstances, teeth may prove to be of value since they are extremely hard. A precise understanding of physical and histological changes in teeth subjected to high temperature can provide valuable clues in fire and crime investigations, when dental evidence remains. Aim: The main aim and objective of the study was to investigate structural damage in freshly extracted teeth to heating, at different temperatures for a certain length of time in the laboratory. Settings and Design: Fifty-four freshly extracted teeth of different age groups had been subjected to different temperatures for a period of 15 minutes in the laboratory furnace. Physical and microscopic findings were correlated to the temperature. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 54 permanent teeth of different age groups were collected and were subjected to temperatures of 100°C, 300°C, and 600°C. Teeth were then examined for any physical changes such as change in color, texture, or morphology that occurred. Then the teeth were subjected for decalcification following which the tissues were kept for routine processing and were embedded in paraffin wax. Sections of 4 μm thickness were made and stained in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) to correlate the microscopic findings to the temperature. Statistical Analysis: Physical and microscopic findings were correlated to the temperature. Results: Microscopic examination revealed definite histological patterns, which were explicitly seen at a particular temperature. The samples showed cracks and charring of the tooth structure with microscopic findings such as widening of dentinal tubules and altered histological staining. Conclusion: Evaluation of incinerated dental remains may provide additional forensic investigative avenues in victim identification because of the consistency of morphological changes, the histological patterns at temperatures that are commonly encountered in common domestic fires.
  2,143 361 -
Evaluation of dental expertise with intra-oral peri-apical view radiographs for forensic identification
Kanwalpreet Kaur Bhullar, Ramandeep S Bhullar, Sundaresan Balagopal, Arathi Ganesh, Mathan Rajan
September-December 2014, 6(3):171-176
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137051  PMID:25177139
Background: Identification of a dead person is important in starting the investigation into the circumstances of death. In the absence of forensic odontologist, it is vital that general dentists are able to compare the ante mortem-post mortem (AM-PM) records and with their ability, correctly interpret the individuality of the person. Aims: This study wascarried out to find out the accuracy with which undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate dentists can do this comparison, using the simulated AM-PM intra-oral peri-apical (IOPA) view radiographs. Setting and Design: A total of 60 investigators of which 20 undergraduate students, 20 general dentists, 20 post-graduate dentists viewed 10 pairs of simulated AM and PM radiographs and recorded their findings. Materials and Methods: Ten pairs of simulated AM-PM IOPA view radiographs were given to 60 dentists to investigate their discriminatory potential for dental identification purposes. The results were statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis: χ2 -test and Mann-Whitney U-test were carried out to compare the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the three types of examiners (UG, G, PG). Results: The results showed sensitivity of 59.8%, specificity of 62.6%, accuracy of 61% for undergraduate students, sensitivity of 86.6%, specificity of 87.5%, accuracy of 87% for graduate doctors, sensitivity of 89.3%, specificity of 92.3% and accuracy of 90.5% for post-graduate doctors respectively. Conclusion: Inexperienced investigators in forensic identification showed fairly acceptable results, therefore, introduction of forensic odontology in an undergraduate course may help general dentists to provide better service, if required, in the absence of a forensic odontologist.
  2,116 332 -
Micro secure digital card: A novel method for denture identification
Shreya S Colvenkar, Sujatha Gopal
September-December 2014, 6(3):183-185
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.137054  PMID:25177141
Aim: Denture labeling is of vital significance in social and forensic scenario. Numerous published work have attempted to present best method for denture marking, however not all satisfy crucial requirement either in terms of cost or storage of large amount of information. Hence, this paper describes a simple, cheap, and feasible denture marking system using portable Micro Secure Digital (MicroSD) card. These cards are created to store, modify, and view large amount of information with mobile phones, which forms an important part in majority of household in India. Materials and Methods: After try-in make a depression slightly wider than the size of the MicroSD card on the external lingual flange of the trial mandibular denture. Process the denture together with acrylic wax flap according to manufacturer's instructions. The acrylic flap is planned in such a way that it is well-flushed with surrounding areas and can be lifted on one side to access the card. MicroSD card is placed in the denture and flap is closed. Conclusion: The proposed method is simple, cheap, and can store large amount of information.
  1,756 256 -