Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   2012| January-June  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 28, 2012

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Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods
Ram Ballabh Upadhyay, Juhi Upadhyay, Pankaj Agrawal, Nirmala N Rao
January-June 2012, 4(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99160  PMID:23087579
Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6 o increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation.
  4 7,173 800
An evaluation of third molar eruption for assessment of chronologic age: A panoramic study
Monica Tuteja, Shraddha Bahirwani, P Balaji
January-June 2012, 4(1):13-18
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99154  PMID:23087576
Objectives: The identity of a person can be established by assessing one's age, and in order to be entitled to civil rights and social benefits, verification of the chronological age is required and thereby age estimation has gained an increasing significance in recent years. Tooth eruption is one of the criteria of developmental morphology that can be evaluated by either clinical examination or by evaluation of dental radiographs to determine the dental age. The present study was aimed to evaluate the reliability of the third molar eruption stage as a parameter for forensic age estimation in living subjects. Materials and Methods: The stage of wisdom tooth eruption in 77 male and 73 female Indian subjects aged between 12-26 years was determined by subjecting them to conventional orthopantomograms and was interpreted to assess the third molar eruption stages to evaluate the dental age. Results: Predicted minimum age and mean age of the study sample were found to be significant predictors (P<0.001) of actual age. Minimum age was able to explain 58.3% of the variation in actual age and the mean age was able to explain 60.3% of variation in actual age. Conclusion: Third molar is fairly a reliable indicator to determine the age of alveolar, gingival, and complete emergence of third molar in the occlusal plane in adolescents and young adults. Minimum and most probable ages of examined subjects can also be evaluated using third molar eruption stage.
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Gender variation in morphological patterns of lip prints among some north Indian populations
Yogesh Vats, Jasmine Kaur Dhall, AK Kapoor
January-June 2012, 4(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99155  PMID:23087577
Background: Personal identification is an integral part of forensic investigations. For the same, DNA profiling and fingerprints are the most commonly used tools. But these evidences are not ubiquitous and may not necessarily be obtained from the crime scene. In such a scenario, other physical and trace evidences play a pivotal role and subsequently the branches employed are forensic osteology, odontology, biometrics, etc. A relatively recent field in the branch of forensic odontology is cheiloscopy or the study of lip prints. A comparison of lip prints from the crime scene and those obtained from the suspects may be useful in the identification or narrowing down the investigation. Aim: The purpose of the present study is to determine the gender and population variability in the morphological patterns of lip prints among brahmins, Jats, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana, India. Settings and Design: Samples were collected from Jats, brahmins, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana. The total sample size consisted of 1399 individuals including 781 males and 618 females in the age group of 8-60 years. Care was taken not to collect samples from genetically related individuals. The technique was standardized by recording lip prints of 20 persons and analyzing them. Materials and Methods: Lip prints were collected by using a corporate's invisible tape and analyzed using a hand lens. The patterns were studied along the entire length and breadth of both the upper and the lower lip. The data were analyzed by SPSS statistical package version 17 to determine the frequencies and percentages of occurrence of the pattern types in each population group and a comparison between males and females among the groups was carried out by using the z test. Results and Conclusions: The z-test comparison between patterns of males and females shows significant differences with respect to pattern types I′, II, III, and IV among brahmins; I′, II, III, IV, and Y among Jats; and I, I′, II, III, and V among scheduled castes. Thus, it can be concluded that the variability of the lip print pattern can help sex differentiation among groups and that more studies on the lip print pattern should be carried out to bring new dimensions to forensic anthropology and to aid the law enforcement agencies.
  2 4,031 539
Role of deoxyribonucleic acid technology in forensic dentistry
Pankaj Datta, Sonia Sood Datta
January-June 2012, 4(1):42-46
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99165  PMID:23087582
In the last few years, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) analysis methods have been applied to forensic cases. Forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, that is, after fire exposure or mass disaster. Teeth play an important role in identification and criminology, due to their unique characteristics and relatively high degree of physical and chemical resistance. The use of a DNA profile test in forensic dentistry offers a new perspective in human identification. The DNA is responsible for storing all the genetic material and is unique to each individual. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article gives an overview of the evolution of DNA technology in the last few years, highlighting its importance in cases of forensic investigation.
  2 4,288 627
Cheiloscopy: Revisited
Rachana V Prabhu, Ajit D Dinkar, Vishnudas Dinesh Prabhu, Prasanna Kumar Rao
January-June 2012, 4(1):47-52
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99167  PMID:23087583
Identification plays a very important role in any crime investigation. Cheiloscopy helps in identifying the humans based on the lips' traces. The pattern of wrinkles on the lips has individual characteristics like fingerprints. A review of the literature reveals very little research done on lip prints so far. The present article reviews in detail the history, scope of cheiloscopy, and the use of lip prints in crime detection. It also highlights the current research carried out in the field of cheiloscopy. An effort has been made to help the researchers by reviewing in detail the various methods of classifying and analyzing the lip prints. It concludes by enlightening the readers with the fact that the possibilities to use the red part of lips to identify a human being are wider than it is commonly thought.
  2 6,293 988
Estimation of stature from maxillo-facial anthropometry in a central Indian population
Kanchankumar P Wankhede, Namdeo Y Kamdi, Madhukar P Parchand, Vaibhav P Anjankar, Rajesh V Bardale
January-June 2012, 4(1):34-37
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99161  PMID:23087580
Background: For establishing identity, stature is an important parameter in medico-legal and forensic examination. Aims: To estimate stature from facial parameters. Setting and Design : Prospective study conducted from December 2007 to September 2008 in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Nagpur. Materials and Methods: A total of 470 healthy medical students were taken, comprising 260 males and 210 females in the age group of 18 to 24 years. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using regression analysis and correlation coefficient. Results: The average height of males and females was 170.97 (± 6.80) cm and 156.89 (± 5.89) cm respectively. It was observed that in males the total facial height had greater correlation with stature (r = 0.19) and had standard error of ±6.68 cm. In females, nasal height had greater correlation with stature (r = 0.19) and had standard error of ±5.78 cm . Conclusion: It can be stated that percutaneous facial dimensions are not good predictors of accurate stature estimation and can be used when other parameters are not available
  1 4,052 483
Palatal rugae patterns for establishing individuality
AP Indira, Manish Gupta, Maria Priscilla David
January-June 2012, 4(1):2-5
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99149  PMID:23087574
Introduction: Palatal rugoscopy is the name given to the study of palatal rugae. Rugae pattern are widely considered to remain unchanged during an individual's lifetime. The rugae pattern has the potential to remain intact by virtue of their internal position in the head when most other anatomical structures are destroyed or burned. Moreover, rugae pattern are considered to be unique similar to fingerprints and are advocated in personal identification. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to establish, individual identity using palatal rugae patterns. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 study models all of whom were subjects above 14 years old. Martin dos Santos' classification was followed based on form and position to assess the individuality of rugae pattern. Results: Each individual had different rugae patterns including dizygous twins and the rugae patterns were not symmetrical, both in number and in its distribution. Conclusion: The preliminary study undertaken here shows no two palates are alike in terms of their rugae pattern. Palatal rugae possess unique characteristics as they are absolutely individualistic and therefore, can be used as a personal soft-tissue 'oral' print for identification in forensic cases.
  1 7,395 1,262
Study of lip print pattern in a Punjabi population
Simarpreet Virk Sandhu, Himanta Bansal, Poonam Monga, Rajat Bhandari
January-June 2012, 4(1):24-28
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99157  PMID:23087578
Background: Lip prints are unique to each individual and can be used for personal identification. The lip prints show differences according to the race and the ethnic origins of a person. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine the predominant lip print type in a Punjabi population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 106 students of our institution and comprised 56 males and 50 females in the age group of 18-25 years. The middle part of the lower lip was taken as study area. Analysis of lip print pattern was done according to Tsuchihashi Classification. Results: No two lip prints matched with each other. Type 1 pattern (vertical grooves that run across the entire lip) was found to be predominant in both males (51.02%) and females (43.47%) and there was no statistically observed difference between males and females in individual lip print types. Conclusion: In our study, lip prints did not match with each other, hence lip prints are unique and further studies with larger samples are required to obtain statistical significance.
  1 7,485 573
Cheiloscopy: A new role as a marker of sagittal jaw relation
Narayan Kulkarni, SD Vasudevan, Romil Shah, Parikshit Rao, Aswini Y Balappanavar
January-June 2012, 4(1):6-12
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99152  PMID:23087575
Context: It has been proved that lip prints are analogous to thumb prints. A correlation between thumb prints and sagittal dental malocclusion has already been established. Soft tissue is gaining more importance in judgement of deformity or identity of a patient. Aim: To find a correlation between sagittal skeletal jaw relation and lip prints. Settings and Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative, single-blind, hospital-based study. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients were categorized into skeletal class I, class II, and class III, comprising 30 patients in each group with equal gender distribution. Dolphin imaging (10.5) software was used for analyzing sagittal jaw relation. Lip prints obtained from these 90 patients were analyzed. Statistical Analyses Used: Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient, Chi-square test, t-test, Spearman's co-efficient, analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: It was observed that angle ANB (Angle formed between points nasion[N] to Subnasal[A] and nasion[N] to supramental [B]) and beta angle were statistically significant, revealing a strong negative correlation (-0.9060) with different classes of jaw relation. Significant difference was observed between genders in all the three classes. Significant difference was observed in relation to lip print and the quadrants of upper and lower lips. A statistical significance was noted on the right side of both upper and lower arches. Conclusion: This study shows that lip prints can be employed for sagittal jaw relation recognition. A further study on various ethnic backgrounds with a larger sample size in individual group is necessary for comparing lip prints and malocclusion.
  1 6,025 767
Relevance of forensic odontology in the world today
K Nagesh
January-June 2012, 4(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99147  PMID:23087573
  - 3,068 583
Comparison of cephalometric norms of caucasians and non-caucasians: A forensic aid in ethnic determination
L Kavitha, K Karthik
January-June 2012, 4(1):53-55
  - 7,795 579
Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view
Sulekha Gosavi, Siddharth Gosavi
January-June 2012, 4(1):38-41
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99162  PMID:23087581
The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster.
  - 4,458 606