Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   2010| July-December  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 20, 2011

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Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process
Susmita Saxena, Preeti Sharma, Nitin Gupta
July-December 2010, 2(2):69-76
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81285  PMID:21731343
The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice.
  15,389 1,812 3
Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains
KL Girish, Farzan S Rahman, Shoaib R Tippu
July-December 2010, 2(2):63-68
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81284  PMID:21731342
The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.
  8,480 1,033 4
The various methods and benefits of denture labeling
Pankaj Datta, Sonia Sood
July-December 2010, 2(2):53-58
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81281  PMID:21731340
Labeled dentures can be important in identifying the owners in case of an accident, loss of memory, states of unconsciousness, being inadvertently misplaced on admission to a hospital or, in identifying the bodies of those who have died in a calamity. Positive identification through labeled dentures plays a key role in forensic scenario. Marking dentures has been considered as an important part of forensic dentistry, although no standardized method is followed. A number of labeling systems are available and can be broadly separated into either surface marking methods or inclusion systems. Each of the commonly described techniques is assessed with respect to their strengths and weaknesses. The more contemporary methods, though hi-tech, are expensive and may not be suitable for all dental practitioners to use. This article reviews the strengths and weaknesses of various methods involved in labeling dentures concluding by recommending that this valuable topic be included in the dental curriculum in India.
  5,550 562 2
Identification of individuals using palatal rugae: Computerized method
M Hemanth, M Vidya, Nandaprasad Shetty, Bhavana V Karkera
July-December 2010, 2(2):86-90
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81288  PMID:21731346
Identification of individuals is a challenging task in forensic odontology. In circumstances where identification of an individual by fingerprint or dental record comparison is difficult, the palatal rugae may be considered as an alternative source. Palatal rugae have been shown to be highly individualistic and it maintains consistency in shape throughout life. Aims and Objectives: The present study is conducted to test the efficiency of computerized software in the identification of individuals after obtaining digital photographic images of the rugae. Materials and Methods: The intra oral photographs of 100 individuals were taken using a SLR digital camera. The custom made external attachment was attached to the camera to standardize all the photographs. A special software was designed called the Palatal Rugae Comparison Software (PRCS Version 2.0) to match the clinical photographs. Five evaluators including 3 dentists, 1 computer professional, and 1 general surgeon were asked to match the rugae pattern using the software. The results were recorded along with time taken by each operator to match all the photos using software. Results: The software recorded an accuracy of 99% in identification of individuals. Conclusion: The present study supports the fact of individuality of the rugae. Computerized method has given very good results to support the individualization of rugae. Through our study, we feel that palatal rugae patterns will be of great use in the future of forensic odontology.
  5,097 815 2
Use of frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns as an aid in personal identification: A digital radiographic pilot study
Maria Priscilla David, Runjhun Saxena
July-December 2010, 2(2):77-80
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81286  PMID:21731344
Objectives: To examine and classify the variations in the pattern of frontal sinus and nasal septum as observed on the posterior anterior Cephalometric radiographs, and to propose the possible use of the same in personal identification. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 50 individuals visiting the department, whose age ranged from 25 to 50 years. The radiographs of 25 males and 25 females were recorded using a Kodak 8000 C and Dental Imaging Software Viewer 6.3.4. Frontal sinus (symmetry and lobulations) and nasal septum patterns (deviations) were observed and classified. Results: Frontal sinus symmetry was observed in 29 (58%) individuals and asymmetry was observed in 16 (32%). Frontal sinuses were absent (bilateral aplasia) in two individuals (4%). Unilateral aplasia was seen in three individuals (6%). Straight nasal septum was seen in 11 (22%), right deviation in 21 (42%), and left deviation in 15 (30%) individuals. Sigmoid was seen in one male (2%), reverse sigmoid in one male (2%), and other pattern type in one female (2%). Both frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns were assessed together for each individual. Out of 50 individuals, 41 unique combinations of frontal sinus and nasal septum were found. However, there were nine individuals whose patterns matched one of the patterns of the 41 individuals. Conclusion: We observed that the frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns had considerable individual variation. A combined use of both the patterns, as observed on the radiographs, could serve as an adjunct to other methods of personal identification.
  5,012 718 9
Bioterrorism: Challenges and considerations
Nilima Prakash, P Sharada, GL Pradeep
July-December 2010, 2(2):59-62
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81283  PMID:21731341
Bioterrorism, the deliberate, private use of biological agents to harm and frighten the people of a state or society, is related to the military use of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons. Attacks with biological agents are among the most insidious and breed the greatest fear. Attacks could go undetected for a long time, potentially exposing a vast number of people, who are unaware of the threat. Dentist's responses to catastrophes have been redefined by bioterrorism. Accurate and substantial information given to the public by credible public health and medical experts can do much to allay their fears and encourage their cooperation and participation in constructive, organized community response efforts. The dental profession could potentially play a significant role in the emergency response to a major bioterrorism attack.
  4,652 424 -
Age estimation in 25-45 yrs. old females by physical and radiological methods
Vikrant Kasat, FR Karjodkar, Walter Vaz
July-December 2010, 2(2):91-95
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81290  PMID:21731347
Aim:The purpose of this study was to estimate the age in living females in the later years (25 to 45 years) from general physical features and radiographic changes in the sternum and the mandible. Materials and Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted on 64 females (32 subjects in each study and control group). All the subjects were physically examined for graying of scalp, body, pubic hair, and for wrinkling of skin of the forehead, temporal region, and below the eyes. A right lateral view of the chest was taken to determine fusion of the components of the sternum. Combined Hair Score, Combined Skin Score, and Combined Bone Fusion Score were calculated. An orthopantomogram of each patient was traced for lower jaw, mandibular canal and teeth, and D 1 , D 2 , A values were calculated. SPSS Software Version 10.1 was used for the execution of the regression command on the 32 cases of the control group, whose ages were known. Results:Combined skin score, mandible right D 2 , mandible right angle, and mandible left angle turned out significant in the prediction of age. Using the regression equation obtained, the age of the 32 subjects in the study group was estimated. In 9.3% of cases, the predicted ages exactly matched the actual ages. A variation of 1−4 years was seen in 75% of the cases. A variation of 6−7 years was seen in 15.6% of the cases. Conclusion:This study succeeded in most instances in predicting the ages of the study group and in arriving at a formula for age estimation between the ages of 25 and 45 years without using any invasive, costly, time - consuming, or troublesome method.
  4,132 489 -
Tooth for truth (The glory of forensic dentistry)
N Gnanasundaram
July-December 2010, 2(2):51-52
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81277  PMID:21731339
  2,813 554 -
Geriatric forensics: A dentist's perspective and contribution to identify existence of elder abuse among his patients
Khurshid A Mattoo, Kumar Shalabh, Aamir Khan
July-December 2010, 2(2):81-85
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81287  PMID:21731345
Aims and Objectives: To identify existence of elder abuse among the patients seeking prosthetic rehabilitation of missing teeth. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 300 patients aged 65 years and above. It included 238 males and 62 females. A questionnaire prepared by a psychologist was used to evaluate the patient in various aspects of neglect. Results: The results revealed that 40% of the total subjects that were studied were suffering from neglect in one way or the other. Conclusion: The results conclude that elder negligence was highly prevalent in elder patients who report to the dental office seeking oral prosthetic rehabilitation.
  3,044 284 -
Current trends in forensic genetics
Raghu Dhanapal, Bharath T Sreenivasa, Supriya A Naga, P Soujanya, TR Saraswathi
July-December 2010, 2(2):96-98
  2,716 364 -
Obituary - J.G. Kannappan

July-December 2010, 2(2):52-52
  1,948 114 -
Conference report

July-December 2010, 2(2):99-99
  1,753 187 -