Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   2009| January-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 26, 2009

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Study of lip prints
TR Saraswathi, Gauri Mishra, K Ranganathan
January-June 2009, 1(1):28-31
The external surface of lips has many elevations and depressions forming a characteristic pattern called lip prints, examination of which is known as cheiloscopy. The lip prints are unique and distinguishable for every individual like fingerprints. The use of lip prints for human identification was first suggested in 1950 and researches were carried out in 1960s and early 1970s, resuming in the last few years. The present study was aimed to study the lip prints of different individuals in different parts of the lip and find out the incidence of any particular pattern in the given age group. Although lip prints identification has been utilized in the court in isolated cases, more researches need to be conducted in this field with regards to confirmation of uniqueness, and the collection and interpretation of evidence.
  31,407 2,843 10
Cheiloscopy: The study of lip prints in sex identification
Preeti Sharma, Susmita Saxena, Vanita Rathod
January-June 2009, 1(1):24-27
Human identification is a universal process based on scientific principles, mainly involving finger printing. Theory of uniqueness is a strong point used in the analysis of fingerprints to convince the court of law. Likewise, even the lip print is unique of an individual and hence beholds the potential for identification purpose. Thus, lip prints can be used to verify the presence or absence of a person at the scene of crime. The wrinkles and grooves on labial mucosa called as sulci labiorum form a characteristic pattern called 'lip prints' and the study of which is referred to as chieloscopy. The study group comprised of 20 females and 20 males. The materials used were lipstick, bond paper, cellophane tape, a brush for applying the lipstick, and a magnifying lens. This study shows that lip prints are unique to an individual and behold the potential for recognition of the sex of an individual.
  25,711 2,646 4
Limitations in forensic odontology
B Kavitha, A Einstein, B Sivapathasundharam, TR Saraswathi
January-June 2009, 1(1):8-10
The concept of using dental evidence in forensic investigation has kindled so much interest in the recent past that forensic odontology is even suggested as the single positive identification method to solve certain forensic cases. In this process, the shortcomings in forensic odontology though few are overlooked. These discrepancies associated with various methods are to be weighed cautiously to make forensic odontology a more accurate, reliable, and reproducible investigatory science. In this paper, we present our understanding of the limitations in various methods employed in forensic odontology.
  18,593 2,790 1
Professional negligence in dental practice: Potential for civil and criminal liability in India
Ashith B Acharya, JK Savitha, Suresh V Nadagoudar
January-June 2009, 1(1):2-7
The doctor/dentist-patient relationship has transformed over the last two decades. Health professionals are increasingly viewed as providers of service for consideration. The Consumer Protection Act (CPA) was enacted in 1986 for better protection of the interests of consumers as well as to provide a simple and quick mechanism for redressing consumer grievances. Since 1995, health professionals have been included within the ambit of the CPA, empowering the patient to file lawsuits (in case of perceived negligence) in consumer courts. This review explores the definitions of 'consumer', 'services', and 'negligence', discussing their implications with respect to civil and criminal liability of dentists, while providing relevant case examples and court guidelines in landmark judgments. It is concluded that the potential for civil lawsuits against dentists for negligent actions is existent, although the prospect of a dentist being held liable for criminal negligence is low.
  13,598 1,458 -
Age estimation using pulp/tooth area ratio: A digital image analysis
Sasidhar Singaraju, P Sharada
January-June 2009, 1(1):37-41
Age is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of the person. Estimation of the human age is a procedure adopted by anthropologists, archeologists, and forensic scientists. Inspection of radiographs and subsequent comparison with radiographic images, in charts yield 'maturity scores' that help us to assess the age of an individual. Alternative approaches based on digitalization of panoramic radiographs and their computerized storage have recently become available that exploit image analysis to obtain nondestructive metric measurements of both pulp chambers and teeth, which can be used to assess the age of an individual. The purpose of the present study was to present a method for assessing the chronological age based on the relationship between age and measurement of the pulp/tooth area ratio on single-rooted teeth, using orthopantomographs and a computer-aided drafting program AutoCAD 2000.
  9,998 2,350 5
Dimorphism in human maxillary and madibular canines in establishment of gender
Karen Boaz, Chhavi Gupta
January-June 2009, 1(1):42-44
Sexual dimorphism refers to the differences in size, shape, color, etc. between males and females and is a useful tool to distinguish them, especially in forensic investigations and anthropological assessments. The canines are favoured as ideal teeth to study these differences in view of their durability in the oral cavity. The present study was performed on 100 dental casts of a South Indian population in the age group of 14-20 years in an attempt to assess the dimorphism of human permanent maxillary and mandibular canines and to evaluate the possibility of dimorphism of the canines being used as a valid tool in the forensic and legal identification of an individual. The mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements were subjected to statistical analysis using the t test to determine whether significant differences exist between tooth sizes in males and females. The present study revealed that the mean values of the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions of the mandibular left canine (33) were greater in females than in males and the mean values of the mesiodistal dimensions of the mandibular right canine (43) in females were greater than that in males in the given sample. The finding could be attributable to evolution resulting in a reduction in sexual dimorphism, causing an overlap of tooth dimensions in modern males and females.
  9,321 1,301 3
Effects of high temperatures on different dental restorative systems: Experimental study to aid identification processes
Sandra Moreno, Giuseppe Merlati, Liliana Marin, Caterina Savio, Freddy Moreno
January-June 2009, 1(1):17-23
This "in vitro" study was to observe the effects of high temperatures on teeth restored by (1) amalgam overlaying glass ionomer bases, (2) composite/adhesive system overlaying glass ionomer bases, (3) ZnO modified temporary filling material vs. unrestored teeth. Fifty un-restored teeth (control group), 50 teeth with class I amalgam restorations and glass ionomer bases, 50 teeth with class I composite/adhesive system restorations and glass ionomer bases and 50 teeth with class I ZnO modified temporary filling material restorations were placed in a furnace and heated at a rate of 10C/min. The effects of the predetermined 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200C temperatures were examined macroscopically and then observed microscopically by means of a stereomicroscope. Our observations showed that the class I restorations made of amalgam on glass ionomer bases as far as the class I restorations made of ZnO modified temporary filling material can be identified till 1200C because they maintain their shape despite the disintegration of the crowns, whilst the class I composite/adhesive system and the underplayed glass ionomer bases remained in place in an altered shape.
  6,478 1,103 1
Reliability of automated biometrics in the analysis of enamel rod end patterns
K Manjunath, TR Saraswathi, G Sriram, B Sivapathasundharam, S Porchelvam
January-June 2009, 1(1):32-36
Tooth prints are enamel rod end patterns on the tooth surface. These patterns are unique to an individual tooth of same individual and different individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and sensitivity of an automated biometrics software (Verifinger standard SDK version 5.0) in analyzing tooth prints. In present study, enamel rod end patterns were obtained three times from a specific area on the labial surface of ten extracted teeth using acetate peel technique. The acetate peels were subjected to analysis with Verifinger standard SDK version 5.0 software to obtain the enamel rod end patterns (tooth prints) and respective minutiae scores for each tooth print. The minutiae scores obtained for each tooth print was subjected to statistical analysis using Cronbach's test for reliability. In the present study, it was found that Verifinger software was able to identify duplicate records of the same area of a same tooth with the original records stored on the database of the software. Comparison of the minutiae scores using Cronbach's test also showed that there was no significant difference in the minutiae scores obtained (>0.6). Hence, acetate peel technique with Verifinger standard SDK version 5.0 is a reliable technique in analysis of enamel rod end patterns, and as a forensic tool in personal identification. But, further studies are needed to verify the reliability to this technique in a clinical setting, as obtaining an acetate peel record from the same area of the tooth in-vivo, is difficult.
  5,750 799 1
Forensic odontology in India
S Balagopal
January-June 2009, 1(1):1-1
  4,298 1,035 -
Denture marking: An introduction and review
Thallam V Padmanabhan, Rajiv K Gupta
January-June 2009, 1(1):11-16
  2,738 143 1
Journal reviews
Shabana Fatima, Shruti Nayak, Shweta Nag, Renjith George, Vikram Reddy
January-June 2009, 1(1):47-48
  2,515 340 -
Judicial consumerism
BS Bagi
January-June 2009, 1(1):45-46
Legal medicine is very essential for practicing dentists so as to protect against public complaints and litigation. This paper briefs about medicolegal jurisprudence and its introduction and promotion among medical professionals.
  2,359 299 -