Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
Sep-Dec 2016
Volume 8 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 117-181

Online since Monday, December 05, 2016

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool Highly accessed article p. 117
T Radhika, Nadeem Jeddy, S Nithya
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195119  PMID:28123263
Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Crown size and arch width dimension as an indicator in gender determination for a Puducherry population p. 120
Juhi Gupta, M Jonathan Daniel
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195105  PMID:28123264
Introduction: Tooth morphometry is resistant to postmortem destruction and can be used as an adjunct in skeletal sex and age determination. Therefore, an attempt was made to compare mandibular canine index (MCI) and Pont's index for their level of accuracy in gender determination for a Puducherry population. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate crown size and arch width dimension for the Puducherry population using MCI and Pont's index. To compare the MCI and Pont's index, for the level of accuracy in gender determination and to validate its use as a forensic tool. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six participants (53 males and 53 females) in the age group of 18–25 years of the Puducherry population were included in the study. Their MCI and Pont's index were recorded. Results: The data obtained were subjected to paired t-test analysis. It was observed that right MCI was most accurate and molar index was least accurate in sex determination. Conclusion: MCI and Pont's index showed significant sexual dimorphism. They can be used as an adjunct to other tools for sex determination and identification of the person for the Puducherry population.
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Quantitative and qualitative analysis of palatal rugae patterns in Gujarati population: A retrospective, cross-sectional study p. 126
Jayasankar Pillai, Alka Banker, Amit Bhattacharya, Radha Gandhi, Nupur Patel, Sarthak Parikh
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195110  PMID:28123265
Introduction: Palatal rugae are irregular and nonidentical mucosal elevations seen on the anterior third of palate. They are arranged in transverse direction on either side of the median palatine raphe (MPR) and are protected from high temperature and trauma because of their rational position in the oral cavity. Their number and patterns are not uniform in all the individuals, and they appear to vary in different population subsets. The study of palatal rugae is termed as “Rugoscopy” or “Palatoscopy”, and it finds its application in various fields such as anthropology, orthodontics, forensic sciences; including forensic odonto-stomatology. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative parameters of palatal rugae using pre-orthodontic study models of Gujarati samples. Objectives: (1) To identify the predominant palatal arch forms in the study samples. (2) To evaluate and correlate the rugae count in both male and female samples with the different palatal arch forms. (3) To assess the symmetry and/or asymmetry in rugae count between the right and left side. (4) To analyze and correlate the qualitative characters such as size, shape, direction, and unification in male and female study samples. Materials and Methods: One hundred pre-orthodontic maxillary dental stone casts of patients with an age range of 17–25 years were selected. The outlines of the rugae were traced using microtip graphite pencil and examined using magnifying glass for different patterns. The quantity and quality of rugae patterns were recorded according to Thomas et al. classification and the data were statistically analyzed by the statistician using SPSS program. Results: Overall, 962 rugae were observed in the study sample. The mean rugae count was 9.86 in males and 9.38 in females. The left side rugae count was more than the right side in both the sexes and it was not statistically significant. Fifty-six percent of the samples showed asymmetry in rugae count between the right and left. Class B palatal arch form was the most common type in the study samples. The number of primary rugae count was more in both the sexes. The distribution of straight (40.2%) and curved (40.4%) types of rugae were almost equal in males but in females, the straight rugae pattern (42.2%) was more than the curved (36.9%), followed by wavy and circular. Of 962 rugae, 36.4% were of horizontal type followed by forward (33.4%) and backward (29.2%). About 1 % of rugae showed perpendicular pattern and only 9.25% showed unification pattern and the divergent type of unification was more common than the convergent type. Conclusion: There is no gender discrimination in relation to any of the metric or non-metric parameters of the palatal rugae in this study samples. No two samples showed similarity in the distribution of palatal rugae patterns. The straight and horizontal rugae distributions were predominant in our Gujarati Study samples.
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A study on nutritional status and tooth crown size among 6–9-year-old children: An observational cross-sectional study p. 135
Mohammed Zameer, Syed Nahid Basheer, Naviwala Gulam Anwar, Mohammed Mudassar, Arun Reddy, Haroon Quadri
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195122  PMID:28123266
Background: Numerous factors contribute to variation in tooth size. This is broadly described as genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. A strong genetic contribution has been shown, but environmental factors may also play a role. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status and tooth crown size. Design: An observational cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 school-going children of 6–9 years. The value obtained was plotted on age- and gender-specific percentile curves chart given by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; individuals were categorized based on body mass index criteria. The participants were examined for the mesiodistal width of primary second molar and permanent first molar by three different observers using a Vernier Caliper. Data obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: total of 45, 40, and 15 belonged to underweight, normal, and overweight category, respectively. The tooth size of primary molar between healthy, overweight, and underweight children was 9.87 ± 0.23, 9.47 ± 0.48, and 9.61 ± 0.7, respectively, and for permanent molar between healthy, overweight, and underweight children was 10.63 ± 0.2, 10.56 ± 0.5, and 10.57 ± 0.6, respectively. Conclusion: The correlation between tooth crown size with an exogenous chronic stressor, i.e., malnutrition, was found to be nonsignificant when compared with the healthy individuals. The findings indicate that nutritional status does not significantly influence the determination of tooth size in humans.
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Assessment of objective and subjective measures as indicators for facial esthetics p. 139
Baldeep Singh, Harsimran Kaur, Anna C Vaz, KS Vinod, Lavina Taneja, Shashank Gaikwad
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195107  PMID:28123267
Background: The study mentioned was aimed to examine the contribution of the objective measures representing anterior-posterior (AP) and vertical characteristics, dental esthetics, or their combination that are used in daily orthodontic practice in the assessment of the facial esthetics. Materials and Methods: A panel of 64 laypersons evaluated the facial esthetics of 32 boys and 32 girls, stratified over four different angle classes, on a visual analog scale. The relationship between the objective parameters and facial esthetics was evaluated by the backward multiple regression analysis. Results: Dental esthetics, expressed by the esthetic component of the index of orthodontic treatment need (AC/IOTN), appeared to be the most vital indicator for facial esthetics. The horizontal sum, a variable for AP characteristics of the patient, could be a better variable when compared with the overjet. Conclusion: Addition of this newly defined parameter to the AC/IOTN improved the prognostic value from 25% to 35%.
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Odontometric analysis of permanent maxillary first molar in gender determination p. 145
Ayesha Shireen, Syeda Arshiya Ara
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195120  PMID:28123268
Aims: This study was conducted to assess the sex determination potential from mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) dimensions of permanent maxillary first molar. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Al-Badar Rural Dental College and Hospital, Gulbarga, Karnataka, on 600 subjects (300 male and 300 female), aged 17–25 years. The subjects were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set forth for the study. After obtaining informed consent, the intraoral measurements of MD and BL dimensions on casts of the first maxillary molars were taken using digital vernier caliper with resolution of 0.01 mm. Statistical Analysis Used: The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using paired and unpaired t-test to compare MD and BL dimensions between males and females. P ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean MD width of the first maxillary molar was 10.60 ± 0.6644 mm (right) and 10.60 ± 0.6644 mm (left) in males and 10.40 ± 0.6255 mm (right) and 10.40 ± 0.6255 mm (left) in females. The mean BL width of the first maxillary molar was 11.60 ± 1.2227 mm (right) and 11.60 ± 1.2227 mm (left) in males and 11.20 ± 0.8440 mm (right) and 11.20 ± 0.8440 mm (left) in females. The differences between males and females in MD and BL dimensions measured were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Right and left MD dimensions exhibited sexual dimorphism of 1.92% and right and left BL dimensions exhibited sexual dimorphism of 3.57%. Conclusions: The MD and BL dimensions of the maxillary first molars may be used as an aid in sex discrimination.
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Age estimation by pulp-to-tooth area ratio using cone-beam computed tomography: A preliminary analysis p. 150
Arpita Rai, Ashith B Acharya, Venkatesh G Naikmasur
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195118  PMID:28123269
Background: Age estimation of living or deceased individuals is an important aspect of forensic sciences. Conventionally, pulp-to-tooth area ratio (PTR) measured from periapical radiographs have been utilized as a nondestructive method of age estimation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new method to acquire three-dimensional images of the teeth in living individuals. Aims: The present study investigated age estimation based on PTR of the maxillary canines measured in three planes obtained from CBCT image data. Settings and Design: Sixty subjects aged 20–85 years were included in the study. Materials and Methods: For each tooth, mid-sagittal, mid-coronal, and three axial sections—cementoenamel junction (CEJ), one-fourth root level from CEJ, and mid-root—were assessed. PTR was calculated using AutoCAD software after outlining the pulp and tooth. Statistical Analysis Used: All statistical analyses were performed using an SPSS 17.0 software program. Results and Conclusions: Linear regression analysis showed that only PTR in axial plane at CEJ had significant age correlation (r = 0.32; P< 0.05). This is probably because of clearer demarcation of pulp and tooth outline at this level.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Cusp expression of protostylid in deciduous and permanent molars p. 155
Sandra Moreno, María Paula Reyes, Freddy Moreno
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195108  PMID:28123270
The present article is a case report on the cusp expression of protostylid in the deciduous inferior molars and in the first permanent inferior molar, in which the correspondence and bilateral symmetry of the mentioned expression can be evidenced, as well as the their relation with the foramen cecum of the mesiobuccal furrows of the deciduous and of the permanent inferior molars.
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Dracula tooth: A very rare case report of peg-shaped mandibular incisors p. 164
Ashwin Devasya, Mythri Sarpangala
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195123  PMID:28123271
Microdontia is a term used to describe teeth which are smaller than normal. Peg-shaped teeth are type of microdontia, a developmental disturbances of teeth mainly due to congenital reasons. Most commonly affecting single teeth, that is maxillary lateral incisors. Incidence of peg shaped tooth in maxillary laterals are usually seen and reported. But in mandibular arch it is very rare. Present case, it affected all the incisors of mandibular arch and also the laterals of maxillary arch which is rarest of condition. This case report presents a non syndromic, peg shaped mandibular incisors in a 11 year old male patient.
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Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs p. 167
Rhonan Ferreira Silva, Ademir Franco, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho Mendes, Fernando Fortes Picoli, Fernando Gomes Nunes, Carlos Estrela
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195112  PMID:28123272
Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

A simple working type Integrated Rugoscopy Chart proposed for analysis and recording rugae pattern p. 171
Aman Chowdhry
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195106  PMID:28123273
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ONLINE ONLY ARTICLES: REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Role of forensic odontology in the Indian Armed Forces: An unexplored arena p. 173
Karandeep Singh Arora, Prabhpreet Kaur
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195124  PMID:28123275
Forensic odontology (FO) is a branch of forensic medicine that in the interest of justice deals with proper handling and examination of dental evidence. Teeth can survive in most conditions encountered at death and during decomposition, even when the body is exposed to extreme forces and/or temperatures. FO is being practiced worldwide since 1775, after which it has not only become an integral part of the judicial system of the developed countries but also been adopted by the armed forces and investigative agencies of these countries. In India, the awareness of FO is gaining pace since the last decade after the establishment of various organizations and the Dental Council of India making it a part of the curriculum. However, its identity as an individual endeavour is still to be established. Awareness and applicability of FO in the Indian Defense Forces would be of great help for better and accurate record keeping of the dedicated and vigilant warriors of our army. These records will be of great help for easy recognition of our army men at the time of calamities, wars, and other difficulties. It would also be useful in the identification of terrorists who enter our country and travel easily in disguise.
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Prosthodontics an “arsenal” in forensic dentistry p. 173
Lakshmana Rao Bathala, Narendra Kumar Rachuri, Srinivas Rao Rayapati, Sudheer Kondaka
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195102  PMID:28123274
After major disasters such as earthquakes, fires, floods, tsunami, bomb blasts or terrorist attacks, accurate, and early identification of the dead and injured becomes an utmost importance. Restorations, cariesteeth, missingteeth and/or prostheses are most useful aids for the dental identification. At times, only identifiable remains are a victim's partial or complete dentures. The central principle of dental identification is that postmortem dental remains can be compared with antemortem dental records which include, studycasts, radiographs, etc., to confirm the identity of the victims. Marking/labeling dentures have been considered an important aid in forensic dentistry. Other than finger printing, when compared with all the methods, the marking/labeling of dentures is an accurate and rapid method to identify the unknown victims. There are no standardized methods to follow, but dental practitioners needs to maintain some dental records of their patients. This may include documentation of the “marking of dentures.” The preparedness is the key to success in mass disaster identification. The aim of this review article is to discuss the methods of denture identification, advantages of denture labeling for the rapid identification during major disasters/accidents and the importance of maintaining the patient records.
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Is there enough evidence so that mandible can be used as a tool for sex dimorphism? A systematic review p. 174
Puja Hazari, Rakesh S Hazari, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Surendra Agrawal, Mukesh Yadav
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195111  PMID:28123276
Statement of Problem: One of the most challenging tasks for forensic science is to identify the unknown human skeletal remains of deceased individuals. Study of sex by distinguishing the various morphological characteristics of bones is utmost important in forensic anthropology and for medico-legal assessment. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the literature, to find if there is sufficient evidence to establish the use of mandible in sex identification. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was performed to identify suitable literature, using database of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Published articles in between January 2000 and April 2015 were searched. The main focus of search was on the various parameters of mandible studied in last 15 years for sex dimorphism. The focus was on the articles published on radiographic studies as well as on morphometric studies of dry mandible in which skeletal parameters were studied. The screening of titles and abstracts were done, suitable literature that fulfilled the inclusion criteria was selected for a full-text reading. Results: The initial literature search resulted in 89 articles, out of which only 36 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. Conclusion: Out of 16 radiographic studies, 14 showed statistically significant results that the adult mandible could be used with increased sensitivity and objectivity to identify both sex and population affinity compared to other standard analytical techniques, whereas two studies showed insignificant results. Out of 20 morphometric studies of dry mandible 15 studies showed a positive correlation between sex dimorphism and mandibular parameters and five studies did not show any positive correlations between the two.
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ONLINE ONLY ARTICLES: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Cementum as an age determinant: A forensic view p. 175
Godishala Swamy Sugunakar Raju, Muddana Keerthi, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar Nandan, Thokala Madhusudan Rao, Pavan G Kulkarni, Dorankula Shyam Prasad Reddy
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195121  PMID:28123278
Context: Forensic age estimation (FAE) defines an expertise in forensic medicine, which aims to define in the most accurate way to determine the unknown chronological age of the person involved in judicial or legal proceedings. Dental cementum is a vital tissue which demonstrates continuous apposition throughout the life of the tooth. This appositional changes of cementum helps in approximation of age inforensic investigations. Aims: To correlate age by measuring the overlap or coronal migration of thecementum at thecementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the thickness of the cementum at the apical third of the root. Settings and Design: A hundred freshly extracted teethfrom patients ranging from ages 17-55were longitudinal buccolingually ground sectioned using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Materials and Methods: 100 freshly extracted teeth of age group ranging from 17-55 years were taken. These teeth were longitudinally ground sectioned to a thickness of 8-10μm using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Afterwards the teeth were examined under a light microscope using a micrometer eyepiece for measuring the overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of root. Statistical Analysis: Measurements of the overlap or the coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the root are correlated with age. Results: Results of the study indicated that the cementum at the CEJ migrated coronally during theaging process in case of the impacted teeth. There is also a significant increase in the thickness of the cementum at the apical onethird of rootin the case of both the impacted and erupted teeth. Conclusion: Approximation of age by measuring overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the rootsets new alleys in FAE.
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Can lip prints provide biologic evidence? p. 175
Preeti Sharma, Neeraj Sharma, Vijay Wadhwan, Pooja Aggarwal
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195101  PMID:28123277
Background: Lip prints are unique and can be used in personal identification. Very few studies are available which establish them as biological evidence in the court of law. Thus, the objective of this study was to attempt to isolate DNA and obtain full short tandem repeat (STR) loci of the individual from the lip prints on different surfaces. Materials and Methods: Twelve lip prints were procured on different surfaces such as tissue paper, cotton cloth, ceramic tile, and glass surface. Latent lip prints were developed using fingerprint black powder. Lipstick-coated lip prints were also collected on the same supporting items. DNA was isolated, quantified, and amplified using IdentifilerTM kit to type 15 STR loci. Results: Ample quantity of DNA was extracted from all the lip print impressions and 15 loci were successfully located in seven samples. Fourteen loci were successfully typed in 3 lip impressions while 13 loci were typed in 2 samples. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the relevance of lip prints at the scene of crime. Extraction of DNA followed by typing of STR loci establishes the lip prints as biological evidence too. Tissue papers, napkins, cups, and glasses may have imprints of the suspect's lips. Thus, the full genetic profile is extremely useful for the forensic team.
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Gender determination by radiographic analysis of mental foramen in the Maharashtra population of India p. 176
Girish Suragimath, SR Ashwinirani, Vineetha Christopher, Shobha Bijjargi, Renuka Pawar, Ajay Nayak
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195114  PMID:28123279
Context: Identification of gender is of primary importance in forensic investigations when only fragment of skull remains. Mandible is a hard bone and exhibits a high degree of sexual dimorphism. Gender differences were observed in the height of mandible, gonial angle, bigonial breadth, bicondylar breadth, and position of mental foramen (MF). Aims of the Study: The purpose of this study is to evaluate gender differences in distances from superior border of MF (SMF) and inferior border of MF (IMF) to the lower border of mandible (LBM) and height of mandible in the Maharashtra population. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 patients (200 males and 200 females) were considered for the study. The panoramic radiographs of patients were captured using Xtropan 2000 system and Carestream (T-Mat GIRA) films. The distance from SMF and IMF to the LBM and the height of mandible was measured. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test was applied to calculate the differences between the genders. Results: The distance from SMF and IMF to LBM and height of mandible was more in males when compared to females, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The distances from SMF and IMF to the LBM and height of the mandible showed sexual dimorphism in the Maharashtra population of India.
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Demirjian approach of dental age estimation: Abridged for operator ease p. 177
Vanshika Jain, Priyanka Kapoor, Ragini Miglani
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195103  PMID:28123280
Background: Present times have seen an alarming increase in incidence of crimes by juveniles and of mass destruction that Highlight the preponderance of individual age estimation. Of the numerous techniques employed for age assessment, dental age estimation (DAE) and its correlation with chronological age (CA) have been of great significance in the recent past. Demirjian system, considered as gold standard in DAE is a simple and convenient method for DAE, though,, although, referring to multiple tables make it cumbersome and less eco friendly due to excessive paper load. Aim: The present study was aimed to develop a comprehensive chart (DAEcc) inclusive of all Demirjian tables and developmental stages of teeth and also to as well as to test the operator ease of 50 undergraduate dental students in performing DAE using this chart. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in two stages, wherein the first stage was aimed at formulation of the comprehensive chart (DAECC) which included pictorial representation of calcification stages, the Federation Dentaire Internationale notation of the teeth, and the corresponding scores for each stage with a concluding column at the end to enter the total score. The second stage assessed the applicability of the ease of DAE by DAECC, whereby fifty 2nd year BDS students were asked to trace the calcification stages of the seven permanent left mandibular teeth on a panorex, identify the correct stage, assign the corresponding score, and to calculate the total score for subsequent dental age assessment. Results and Conclusions: showed that average time taken by the students for tracing seven mandibular teeth was 5 min and for assessment of dental age was 7 min. The total time taken for DAE was approximately 12 min, thus making the procedure less time consuming. Hence, this study proposes the use of DAEcc for age estimation due to ease in comprehension and execution of Demirjian system.
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The connecting link! Lip prints and fingerprints p. 177
Amita Negi, Anurag Negi
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195117  PMID:28123281
Background: Lip prints and fingerprints are considered to be unique to each individual. The study of fingerprints and lip prints is very popular in personal identification of the deceased and in criminal investigations. Aims: This study was done to find the predominant lip and fingerprint patterns in males and females in the North Indian population and also to find any correlation between lip print and fingerprint patterns within a gender. Materials and Methods: Two hundred students (100 males, 100 females) were included in the study. Lip prints were recorded for each individual using a dark-colored lipstick and the right thumb impression was recorded using an ink pad. The lip prints and fingerprints were analyzed using a magnifying glass. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The branched pattern in males and the vertical pattern in females were the predominant lip print patterns. The predominant fingerprint pattern in both males and females was found to be the loop pattern, followed by the whorl pattern and then the arch pattern. No statistically significant correlation was found between lip prints and fingeprints. However, the arch type of fingerprint was found to be associated with different lip print patterns in males and females. Conclusion: Lip prints and fingerprints can be used for personal identification in a forensic scenario. Further correlative studies between lip prints and fingerprints could be useful in forensic science for gender identification.
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Reliability of lip prints in personal identification: An inter-racial pilot study p. 178
Laliytha Bijai Kumar, Venkatesh Jayaraman, Philips Mathew, S Ramasamy, Ravi David Austin
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195115  PMID:28123283
Context: Forensic science is a branch of science that deals with the application of science and technology in solving a crime and this requires a multidisciplinary team effort. The word “Forensic” is derived from the Latin word, “Forensis” which means the study of public. Dental professionals should develop interests in contributing to legal issues. Aims: To study the lip prints among people of different races. Settings and Design: Descriptive study. Subjects and Methods: The present study comprised of ninety subjects of which Group A comprised of Africans, Group B comprised of Dravidian, and Group C of Mongoloid race. Each group was then further divided into 15 males and 15 females for whom the lip prints were recorded and evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA test. Results: ANOVA statistical analysis was used to compare three races of African, Dravidian, and Mongoloid races. The observed data among male and female were found to be significant with a P = 0.000492. Conclusion: The present study showed a significant difference in lip pattern among the three races. Perhaps future studies with a larger sample size and comparison between many other races may be done for better personal identification.
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Lip outline: A new paradigm in forensic sciences p. 178
Aruna Kumari Maloth, Shyam Prasad Reddy Dorankula, Ajay Prakash Pasupula
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195109  PMID:28123282
Introduction: Personal identification is becoming increasingly important not only in legal medicine but also in crime/criminal investigation and identification. Sometimes establishing a person's identity can be a very difficult process. Dental, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common technique used. However, there are many well-known implanted methods of human identification, one of the most interesting emerging methods of human identification which originates from the criminal and forensic practice, is human lips recognition. Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with the identification based on lip traces. The lip outline of every person is unique and can be used to fix the personal identity. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of lip outline patterns among males and females, and to evaluate the uniqueness of lip outline pattern. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 individuals from Kamineni Institute of Dental Sciences. Lip outline patterns were obtained and were transferred to the proforma sheet for analysis. Results: The results of the study revealed that the lip outline patterns for each individual were unique. Conclusion: This study showed that lip outline patterns are unique to each individual and can be used for personal identification.
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An In vitro evaluation of the reliability of QR code denture labeling technique p. 179
Sindhu Poovannan, Ashish R Jain, Cakku Jalliah Venkata Krishnan, Chitraa R Chandran
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195116  PMID:28123284
Statement of Problem: Positive identification of the dead after accidents and disasters through labeled dentures plays a key role in forensic scenario. A number of denture labeling methods are available, and studies evaluating their reliability under drastic conditions are vital. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of QR (Quick Response) Code labeled at various depths in heat-cured acrylic blocks after acid treatment, heat treatment (burns), and fracture in forensics. It was an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: This study included 160 specimens of heat-cured acrylic blocks (1.8 cm × 1.8 cm) and these were divided into 4 groups (40 samples per group). QR Codes were incorporated in the samples using clear acrylic sheet and they were assessed for reliability under various depths, acid, heat, and fracture. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, test of proportion. Results: The QR Code inclusion technique was reliable under various depths of acrylic sheet, acid (sulfuric acid 99%, hydrochloric acid 40%) and heat (up to 370°C). Results were variable with fracture of QR Code labeled acrylic blocks. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, by analyzing the results, it was clearly indicated that the QR Code technique was reliable under various depths of acrylic sheet, acid, and heat (370°C). Effectiveness varied in fracture and depended on the level of distortion. This study thus suggests that QR Code is an effective and simpler denture labeling method.
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Assessment of sexual dimorphism using digital orthopantomographs in South Indians p. 180
Sailaja Sambhana, Praveen Sanghvi, Rezwana Begum Mohammed, Prasanth Prathapan Shanta, Anshuj Ajay Rao Thetay, Varunjeet Singh Chaudhary
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195113  PMID:28123286
Introduction: The identification of human skeletal remains plays a crucial role in forensic investigation and its accuracy depends on the available parts of the skeleton. The mandible is the hardest and strongest bone of the skull, which exhibits a high degree of sexual dimorphism and helps to identify the sex in human remains. The aim of this study was to develop discriminant function to determine sex from the mandibular radiographs in a South Indian (Visakhapatnam) population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 384 (192 males and 192 females) digital orthopantomographs (OPGs) divided into five groups according to age. Ten mandibular variables were measured using Planmeca Romexis software. The data were tabulated and subjected to discriminant function analyses using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software (version 20.0) package. Results: All the parameters showed a significant sexual dimorphism (P < 0.001) except for the gonial angle. An overall accuracy of 75.8% was achieved and coronoid height (CrH) was the single best parameter providing an accuracy of 74.1%. Conclusion: All the mandibular variables except for the gonial angle (GA) were found to be reliable in determining the sex in South Indians for forensic purposes.
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Sexual dimorphism in foramen magnum dimensions in the South Indian population: A digital submentovertex radiographic study p. 180
Neha Ajit Raikar, Manasa A Meundi, Chaya M David, Mahesh Dathu Rao, Sanjay Chikkarasinakere Jogigowda
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.195104  PMID:28123285
Purpose of the Study: Personal identification is a vital arena of forensic investigation, facilitating the search for missing persons. This process of identification is eased by the determination of age, sex, and ethnicity. In situations where there are fragmented and mutilated skeletal remains, sex determination is relatively difficult, and it becomes important to establish the accuracy of individual bones. Aim: This study aims to evaluate sexual dimorphism in foramen magnum (FM) dimensions in the South Indian population using digital submentovertex (SMV) radiograph. Materials and Methods: 150 individuals (75 males and 75 females) were subjected to digital SMV radiography. FM in the resultant image was assessed for longitudinal and transverse diameters, circumference, and area. Also, one particular shape was assigned to each image based on the classification of Chethan et al. of FM shapes. Three qualified oral radiologists performed all the measurements twice within an interval of 10 days. Results and Conclusion: The values obtained for all four parameters were statistically significant and higher in males than in females. The most common morphology of FM was an egg shape while hexagonal was the least common morphology. Circumference was the best indicator of sex followed by area, transverse diameter, and longitudinal diameter. Having achieved a high accuracy of 67.3% with digital SMV radiograph makes it a reliable and reproducible alternative to dry skulls for sex determination.
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